Our journal continues to publish a series of articles from the book “Stalin miracle” writer Pavel Krasnov. In these articles we will focus on the Russian peasantry in the late 19th century, his life after the revolution of 1917 and the results of collectivization of the late 30-ies of the last century. We are confident that the great work done by author in collecting materials, to help You better understand the urgency of the peasant question in Russia and the Soviet Union.
Minimum physiological minimum to feed Russia: not less than the 19.2 pounds per capita (of 15.3 pounds – the people, of 3.9 pounds – the minimum feed livestock and poultry). This number was the norm for calculations of Gosplan beginning of 1920-ies. That is, under Soviet rule, it was planned that the average peasant had to stay at least this amount of bread. Kingship issues such little care.
Despite the fact, since the beginning of the twentieth century the average consumption in the Russian Empire amounted to, finally, critical of 19.2 pounds per person, but at the same time in some areas, the increase in the consumption of grain has occurred against the background of falling consumption of other products.
Even this achievement (the minimum for physical survival) has been mixed – according to estimates from 1888 to 1913, per capita consumption in the country reduced by at least 200 kcal. This negative trend is confirmed by observations not just “disinterested experts” – the most ardent supporters of tsarism.
So one of the initiators of the monarchist organization “Russian national Union” Mikhail Osipovich Menshikov wrote in 1909:
“Every year the Russian army is becoming more sickly and physically unable to…Of three boys is hard to pick one, it is fit for service… Bad food in the village, nomadic life to work, early marriage, require increased labour in almost youthful age, — that causes physical exhaustion…to Say terrible, the hardship to the service undergoes a rookie sometimes. About 40 per cent. recruits almost the first time eating meat at receipt on military service. In the service of a soldier eats in addition to good bread, excellent meat soup and porridge, i.e. what many people do not already have the concept of the village…”. Exactly the same data gave gave the commander in chief, General V. Gurko – on call from 1871 to 1901, saying that 40% of peasant boys for the first time try meat in the army.
That is, even ardent, fanatical supporters of the tsarist regime recognized that the power of the average peasant was very poor, leading to mass disease and starvation.
“Western agricultural population mainly consumes high-calorie foods of animal origin, the Russian peasant satisfy its need for food by using bread and potatoes with less calories. Meat consumption is extremely small. Except for a small energy value of this food…the consumption of large masses of vegetable write for compensating the shortage of the animal, causes severe gastric diseases”.
The famine led to a heavy mass diseases and violent epidemics.  Even the pre-revolutionary studies of an official body (the Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire), the situation looks terrible and shameful.  the study shows the mortality rate per 100 thousand people for this disease in European countries and a separate self-governing territories (e.g. Hungary) in composition of the countries.
Mortality on all six major infectious diseases (smallpox, measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria, whooping cough, typhoid) firmly, with enormous margin at times Russia was in the lead.
1. Russia – 527,7 people.
2. Hungary – 200,6 people.
3. Austria – 152,4 people.
Minimum total mortality for the main diseases – Norway – 50.6 per person More than 10 times less than in Russia!
The mortality rate for diseases:
Scarlet fever: 1st place – Russia – 134,8 person, 2nd place- Hungary – 52.4 per person 3rd place- Romania – 52,3 people.
Even in Romania, Hungary and disadvantaged mortality in two times less than in Russia. For comparison, the lowest death rate from scarlet fever was in Ireland, at 2.8 people.
Measles: 1. Russia – 106,2 people 2nd Spain – 45 people 3rd Hungary – Smallest people of 43.5 deaths from measles Norway – 6 persons, more specifically in Romania, 13 people Again the gap with the nearest neighbor in the list more than twice.
Typhoid: 1. Russia – 91,0 2 people. Italy – 28,4 3 people. Hungary – 28,0 Smallest people in Europe – Norway – 4 persons Under fever, by the way, in Russia-that-we-lost wrote off losses from hunger. So recommended to do that the doctors can write off a hungry fever (lesion of the intestine in starvation and related diseases) as infectious. About it quite openly in the papers. In General, the gap with the nearest neighbor in misfortune – almost 4 times. Someone seems to be saying that the Bolsheviks faked the statistics? Well, well. And here is a forge though, even though no – level poverty-stricken African countries.
Is not surprising, then, that the picture is almost the same.
Whooping cough: 1.Russia – 80.9 per 2 people. Scotland – 43,3 3 people. Austria – 38,4 people.
Smallpox: 1. Russia – 50,8 2 people. Spain – 17,4 3 people.Italy – a Difference of 1.4 people with a very poor and backward agrarian Spain, almost 3 times. About the leaders in the eradication of this disease even better not to remember. Poor, oppressed by the British, Ireland, where thousands of people fled overseas – 0,03 people About Sweden, even indecent to say 0.01 per 100 thousand, that is one in 10 million. The difference is more than 5000 times.
The only thing the gap is not so horrible, just a little more than one and a half times – diphtheria: 1. Russia – 64,0 2 people. Hungary – 39.8 per person 3rd place for mortality – Austria – 31,4 people Global leader of wealth and industrialization, has only recently rid itself of the yoke of Turetskogo Romania is 5.8 people.
“Children eat worse than calves from the owner, having a good cattle. Child mortality more than the death rate of calves, and if the owner, having a good cattle, the mortality of calves was as great as the mortality of children at the man, then hosting would be impossible…. If mothers ate better if our wheat, which eats a German, stayed home, and the children would grow better and wouldn’t be such mortality, not rampant to all those fevers, scarlet fever, difteria. Selling German our wheat, we sell our blood, that is, peasant children”.
It is easy to calculate that in the Russian Empire only because of the increased incidence of hunger, disgusting put medicine and hygiene, just like that, incidentally, neither for a pinch of snuff died in about a quarter of a million people. This is the result of incompetent and irresponsible government of Russia. And this is only the case if it would be possible to improve the situation to the troubled countries of the “classical” European in this respect – Hungary. If you reduce the gap to the level of the average European country, only it would have saved approximately half a million lives a year. For all 33 years of Stalin’s rule in the Soviet Union, torn by Civil consequences, violent class struggle in society, several wars and their consequences was sentenced to death for the maximum of 800 thousand people (executed significantly less, but so be it). So this number is easily overlaps only 3-4 years increased mortality in “Russia-that-we-lost.”
Even the most ardent supporters of the monarchy did not speak, just cried about the degeneration of the Russian people.
“The population, existing from hand to mouth, and often starving, can not give strong children, especially if we add to that those unfavorable conditions in which, in addition to malnutrition, a woman during pregnancy and after it”.
“Perestanete, gentlemen, to cheat themselves and to cheat with reality! Are these purely Zoological circumstances as a lack of food, clothing, fuel and basic culture of the Russian common people mean nothing? But they reflected very expressive on zachodnie human type in the Russia, Belarus and the Ukraine. That is the Zoological unit — Russian people in many places covered by the degeneration and degeneration, which made our memory twice to lower the rate while taking the new recruits to the service. A hundred years ago the tallest army in Europe (of Suvorov’s “miracle heroes”) — the present Russian army is the dwarf, and a terrifying percentage of recruits have to cull for service. Is this Zoological fact does not mean anything? Do nothing our shame, nowhere in the world does not meet the infant mortality rate, which the vast majority of living of the masses do not live up to a third of the human world?” Even if you question the results of these calculations, it is obvious that the dynamics of changes in power and labour productivity in agriculture of Imperial Russia (which is were the majority of the population) were completely inadequate for the country’s rapid development and modern industrialization with mass care workers to the factories they would have nothing to feed in the conditions of tsarist Russia.
Maybe it was the overall picture for that time and it was everywhere? And as it was at the beginning of the twentieth century did business with the power of their geopolitical opponents of the Russian Empire? Like this, the data of Nefedov :
The French, for example, consumes 1.6 times more grain than Russian peasants. And this in a climate where grapes and palm trees. If in numeric terms the Frenchman ate of 33.6 pounds of grain per year, producing 30,4 pounds and importing another 3.2 pounds per person. German consumed 27.8 million pounds, generating a 24.2 in dysfunctional Austro-Hungarian Empire, that was nearing its end recent years the consumption of grain was of 23.8 pounds per capita.
Meat Russian peasant consumes 2 times less than in Denmark, and 7-8 times less than in France. Milk Russian peasants drank 2.5 times less than the Dane, and 1.3 times less than the Frenchman.
Aiic Russian peasant ate in as much as a 2.7 (!) g per day, while the Danish farmer – 30 g, and French – to 70.2 grams per day.
By the way, dozens of chickens at the Russian peasants appeared only after the October Revolution and Collectivization. To feed chickens grain, which is not enough for your children was too extravagant. Therefore, all the researchers and contemporaries say the same thing – the Russian peasants were forced to fill the stomach all sorts of rubbish – bran, quinoa, acorns, bark, and even sawdust to the pangs of hunger was not so painful. In fact, it was not agricultural, and the society, engaged in agriculture and gathering. Like in most developed societies of the bronze age. The difference with the developed European countries was just killer.
“Wheat, rye is a good clean we send abroad, to the Germans, who will not eat any rubbish. The best, pure rye we burn through the wine, and the most that neither is a bad rye, with down, Koster, CIVCOM and any rebound resulting from the treatment of rye for distilleries — that it eats too man. But besides that man eats the bread is the worst, he had enough to eat. …from bad food people lose weight, sick, children are growing tighter, exactly like happens with broadering cattle…”
Which means in reality it is a dry academic expression: “the consumption of half of the population is less than average and less than normal” and “half of the population lived in conditions of food”, here it is: Hunger. Dystrophy. Every fourth child who did not live even up to a year. Fading in the eyes of the children.
It was especially hard for the children. In the case of hunger it pays for the population to leave enough food for the workers, reducing his dependents, which obviously includes children, unable to work.
Frankly as the researchers write: “children of all ages, which under all conditions there is a systematic deficit of calories.” “At the end of the XIX century in Russia up to 5 years of age lived only 550 out of 1000 births, whereas in most Western European countries — more than 700.Before the Revolution the situation has improved somewhat, dying “only” 400 children out of 1,000.”  With an average birth rate of 7.3 children per woman (family) had almost no family which would not have died several children. Which could not be deposited in the national psyche.
Constant hunger had a strong impact on the social psychology of the peasantry. Including – real attitude to children. L. N. Liperovsky during the famine of 1912 in the Volga region were involved in organising food and medical aid to the population, testifies: “In the village of Ivanovka is one very nice, large and friendly peasant family; all children of this family are extremely beautiful; once I went to them ginosko; in the cradle screaming child and mother with such strength rocking the cradle, which she tossed up to the ceiling; I told my mother what such a swing can be harm to the child. “Yes, let wish the Lord would take at least one… And yet it is one of the good and kind women in the village” .
“With 5 to 10 years the Russian mortality approximately 2 times higher than in Europe, and up to 5 years – higher order…the Mortality of children older than one year also several times higher than European”.
Picture caption: Aksiutka to slake the hunger, chews white fireclay, having a sweet taste. (S. Petrovka, Buzuluk. y.)
In the 1880-1916 years the Excess mortality of children compared to more than a million children a year. That is from 1890 by 1914 only because of incompetent governance in Russia died for no snuff about 25 million children. This population of Poland in those years if it died out completely. If you add to it the adult population who did not live to the average level, the overall numbers will be appalling.
It is the result of the control of the tsarist “Russia-that-we-lost.”
By the end of 1913 the main indicators of societal well-being, quality of nutrition and health – life expectancy and infant mortality in Russia were at the African level. Average life expectancy 1913 – 32.9 years Mel’yantsev, V. A. East and West in the second Millennium:economy, history and modernity. — M., 1996. While in England, 52, France – 50, Germany – 49 years, average 49 years.  On this critical indicator of quality of life in the state of Russia was at the level of Western countries somewhere in the early-mid 18th century, lagging them by about two centuries.
Even rapid economic growth between 1880 and 1913 for has reduced this backlog. Progress in increasing life expectancy was very slow in Russia in 1883 – 27.5 years in 1900 to 30 years. This shows the effectiveness of the social system as a whole – agriculture, economy, medicine, culture, science, political order. But this slow growth is associated with increasing literacy and dissemination of simple health knowledge  has led to the growth of the population and, as a consequence, the reduction of land and increasing the number of “mouths to feed”. There were extremely dangerous unstable situation with no way out without a radical reorganization of social relations.
However, even such a small prodoljitelnost life this applies only to the best years, the years of mass epidemics and starvation, life expectancy was still less than in 1906, 1909-1911 gg, as they say, even biased researchers life expectancy “in women has not dropped below 30, and men — below 28 years.” What can I say, what is the reason for pride – the average life expectancy of 29 years between 1909 and 1911.
Dramatically improved the situation only the Soviet Power. So only 5 years after the Civil war the average life expectancy in the RSFSR amounted to 44 years.  . While during the war, 1917, she was 32 years old, and during the Civil – about 20 years.
The Soviet Government even without the Civil war has made progress compared with the best year of tsarist Russia, adding over 5 years more than 11 years of life per person, while tsarist Russia during the same time in the years of greatest progress in just 2.5 years in 13 years. According to the unfair counting.
It is interesting to see how Russia, starving itself, “feeding the whole of Europe”, as we try to convince some unique citizens. The picture of “feeding Europe” as follows:
This extraordinary combination of weather conditions and the highest for tsarist Russia the crop of 1913, the Russian Empire exported 530 million poods of grain, which amounted to 6.3% of consumption of European countries (8.34 billion pounds).  That is, there can be no question that the Russian fed is not something that Europe, and even half of Europe.  Grain imports are generally very characteristic of the advanced industrial European countries – they’ve been doing this since the end of the 19th century and does not castalda. But for some reason they don’t discuss the ineffectiveness and agriculture in the West. Why is this happening? Very simple – the added value of industrial products is significantly higher than the value added of agricultural products. With a monopoly on some industrial products, the position of the manufacturer is generally exceptional – if someone needs, for example, guns, boats, airplanes, or Telegraph, and no one, except you have something you can cheat just a fantastic rate of return, if one of such essential things in the modern world there is something them no question about the fact that it’s quick to make himself not. And wheat can be made even in England, at least in China, even in Egypt, its nutritional properties has not changed. Do not buy the Western capitalist wheat in Egypt, no problem – buy in Argentina.
So when choosing, it is more profitable to produce and export modern industrial products or grain, is much more profitable to produce and export industrial products, if they produce it. If you do not know and need foreign currency, it only remains to export grain and raw materials. The engaged and tsarist Russia engaged in the post-Soviet Eref, destroyed his modern industry. Simply skilled manpower is given in modern industry a much greater rate of return. And if you need grain to feed poultry or livestock – it is possible to buy the, taken, for example, expensive machines. Grain can produce very much, but modern equipment is not all and the competition is much less.
Therefore Russia was forced to export grain in the industrial West to obtain foreign currency. However, over time Russia is clearly losing ground grain exporter.
Since the early 90-ies of the 19th century quickly developing and using new technologies of agriculture of the United States of America confidently pushed Russia to place the main wheat exporter in the world. Very quickly the gap has become so that Russia to make up for lost already, in principle, could not – a 41.5% market share firmly held by the Americans, Russia’s share dropped to 30.5.%
All this despite the fact that the US population in those years was less than 60% of Russian – 99 against 171 million in Russia (excluding Finland).  Even the total population of the United States, Canada and Argentina were only 114 million – 2/3 of the population of the Russian Empire. Contrary to popular recent belief, in 1913 Russia had not surpassed the three countries together in the production of wheat (which wouldn’t be surprising with half bolshee population occupied mainly in agriculture), and inferior to them, and the total yield of grain was inferior to even the US.  this is despite the fact that while the agricultural production of the Russian Empire accounted for almost 80% of the population of which productive labor employed, at least 60-70 million people in the United States – a total of about 9 million. USA and Canada were at the head of the scientific-technical revolution in agriculture, the widely use chemical fertilizers, modern machines and new, competent crop rotation and high-yielding varieties of cereals and confidently squeezed out Russia from the market.
The collection of grain per capita the United States ahead of the tsarist Russia in two, Argentina — three, Canada four times. [24,25] In reality, the situation was very sad and the situation in Russia got worse – it increasingly lagged behind the world level.
By the way, began to reduce the export of grain and the United States, but for a different reason – before the First World war was the rapid development of more favorable industrial production and small population (less than 100 million) working hands began to move into the industry.
Actively began to develop modern agricultural technologies and Argentina, quickly forcing the grain market of Russia. Russia, “which fed the whole of Europe” exported grain and bread in General is almost the same as Argentina, although the population of Argentina was 21.4 times less than the population of the Russian Empire!
The US exported a large quantity of quality wheat flour, and Russia, as usual – the grain. Alas, the situation was the same as with the export of unprocessed raw materials.
Soon, Germany had supplanted Russia from the seemingly unshakable first place traditionally the main exporter of the grain culture of Russia – rye. But in General, the total amount exported “classic five grain” Russia continued to hold first place in the world (22,1%). Although about any unconditional rule of speech was not and it was clear that the years of Russia as the world’s largest grain exporter are numbered and will soon be gone forever. So the share of the Argentine market is already accounted for 21.3%.  Tsarist Russia lagged behind in agriculture from its competitors more and more.
Now this is how Russia fought for their market share. High quality grain? Reliability and stability of supply? Did – a very low price.
Agricultural economist-immigrant P. I. Lyashchenko in 1927, wrote in his work devoted to the grain exports of Russia in the late 19th and early 20th century: “Russian bread did not take the most good and expensive, the buyers. American clean and high-grade grain uniformly high standards, strict organization of American trade exposure in the supply and prices of Russian exporters have opposed the grain clogged (often with direct abuse), different sorts of not complying with trade models, is thrown into a foreign market without any system and aging in the highlights least favorable conditions, often in the form of goods unsold, and only in the way of seeking a buyer.” Therefore, had the Russian merchants to play on the closeness of the market price polling, etc. In Germany, for example, Russian wheat was sold cheaper world prices: wheat 7-8 kopecks, rye 6-7 kopeks, oats for 3-4 kopecks per pood. – ibid.
Here they are, “beautiful Russian merchants” – “great entrepreneurs” have nothing to say. It turns out that they were unable to organize the cleaning of grain or stability of supplies, not to determine market conditions. But I mean to squeeze the grain from the peasant children they were experts.
But where, I wonder, were the proceeds from the sale of Russian bread?
For a typical 1907 the income from the sale of grain abroad amounted to 431 million rubles. Of them luxury items for the aristocracy and landowners had spent 180 million. Another 140 million krusteva French loaves Russian nobles left abroad – spent in the resorts of Baden-Baden, squandered in France, lost in the casino, bought real estate in “civilized Europe”. On the modernization of Russia effective owners spent as much as one-sixth of income (58 million RUB)  from the sale of grain, embossed from the starving peasants.
In translation into Russian it means that the starving peasant “effective management” took bread, exported abroad, and received for human life gold rubles was spent on drink in Parisian taverns, and purged in a casino. It is to ensure the profits of bloodsuckers starving Russian children.
The question is, could the tsarist regime to undertake the necessary Russia’s rapid industrialization, with such a control system here doesn’t even make sense to put this is to be considered. It is, in fact, the verdict of the whole socio-economic policy of tsarism and not only agricultural.
How managed to extort food from malnourished countries? The main suppliers of commercial bread were the large landlords and the kulak farms, kept at the expense of cheap hired labour smallholder farmers who are forced for a pittance hires workers.
Exports have led to the displacement of traditional Russian grain crops crops demand abroad. This is a classic sign of a third world country. Similarly, in all the “banana republics” all the best land is divided between Western corporations and the local comprador landowners for a pittance producing through severe exploitation of the poor population cheap bananas and other tropical products, which are then exported to the West. And local residents for the production is just not enough good land.
The dire situation of hunger in the Russian Empire was quite obvious. It now are kind of the Lord to explain everything, as it turns out, had a good life in tsarist Russia.
Ivan Solonevich, an ardent monarchist and anti-Soviet so oharkterizovala the situation in the Russian Empire before the Revolution:
“The fact of extreme economic backwardness of Russia compared to the rest of the cultural world cannot be doubted. The figures of 1912, the national income per capita amounted to: in the USA (USA – PK) 720 rubles (in pre-war gold-on-year) in England – 500, Germany 300, Italy – 230 and Russia – 110. So the average Russian before the First world war was nearly seven times poorer than the average American, and more than two times poorer than the average Italian. Even bread – our main wealth was scarce. If England consumed per capita 24 pounds, Germany – 27 pounds, and the USA – as much as 62 pounds, the Russian bread consumption was only of 21.6 pounds, including all of it for animal feed.(Solonevich uses the overstated data – PK) Need to take into account that in the diet of Russian bread has held a place as anywhere else in other countries were not occupied. In rich countries like the USA, England, Germany and France, the bread is replacing meat and dairy products and fish – fresh and canned…”  Witte in 1899 at the Ministerial meeting stressed: “If we compare the consumption we have in Europe, the average size of its per capita amount in Russia for the fourth or fifth part of what other countries recognize the need for a normal existence”  Here are the words of no less a personage than the Minister of agriculture in 1915-1916 A. N. Naumov, very reactionary monarchist, not a Bolshevik and revolutionary: “in fact, Russia does not get out of the state of hunger in one, in another province, before the war and during the war”. And then he follows: “rampant speculation bread, predation, bribery; Commission agents, who supply the grain, making fortune on your phone. And in the face of poverty some crazy luxury other. Two steps from convulsions starvation – Orgy satiety. Around the estates of those in power die out of the village. They are, meanwhile, busy with construction of new villas and palaces.”
In addition to “hungry” comprador export from chronic hunger in the Russian Empire there were two serious reasons – one of the world’s lowest yields of most crops , due to the specificity of the climate and the extremely backward agrarian technology , leading to the fact that in the formal big land area, land available for the processing of antiquated technology in a very short period of Russian seed was extremely inadequate and the situation is only getting worse with population growth. As a result, in the Russian Empire rampant trouble was the lack of land is a very small size of the peasant holding.
By the early twentieth century the situation in the village the Russian Empire began to acquire critical.
So, just for example, in Tver lips. 58% of farmers had put, as it is delicately called bourgeois economists – “below subsistence level”. Well if the supporters of Russia-that-we-lost know what that means in reality?
“Take a look at any village, what there is cold and hungry poverty. The peasants live almost together with cattle in the same dwelling. What are their plots? They live on 1 acre, on 1/2 acre, 1/3 of the tithe, and with such a small piece has to raise 5, 6 and even 7 shower family…” the Meeting of the Duma in 1906  Volyns’kyi farmer — danyluk.
In the early twentieth century social situation in the village changed dramatically. If even in times of severe famine 1891-92 gg was little or no protest – the dark, downtrodden, illiterate masses, oborvannye churchmen, peasants dutifully picked the bag and took the starvation, and the number of peasant uprisings were simply insignificant – 57 individual performances in the 90-ies of the 19th century, by 1902 began a massive peasant performances. Their characteristic feature was that the cost to protest of the peasants of one village, as immediately broke out a few nearby villages.  This shows a very high level of social tension in the Russian village.
The situation continued to deteriorate, the agrarian population grew, and the brutal Stolypin’s reforms led to the ruin of a large mass of peasants, who had nothing to lose, complete hopelessness and futility of their existence, last but not least this was due to the gradual spread of literacy and the activities of the revolutionaries of the enlightenment, as well as a noticeable weakening of the influence of the clergy in connection with the gradual development of education.
The peasants were desperately trying to reach out to governments, trying to talk about their cruel and hopeless life. The more peasants they were not voiceless victims. Started mass protests, squatting landed estates and inventory, etc. And landlords are not touched, in their homes, as a rule, did not go.
Court records, peasant mandates and requests show an extreme degree of desperation of the people in the “blessed” of Russia. From the materials of one of the first courts:
“…When the victim Fesenko addressed the crowd that had come to Rob, asking for what they want to destroy, accused the hares said, “you’re the one with 100 acres and we have 1 tithe* to the family. You would try to live on one tithe of the land…”
the accused… Kiyan: “Let me tell you about a peasant, unhappy life. My father and 6 young (no mother) children should live with the estate in 3/4 and 1/4 of tithing of tithing of the field of the earth. For grazing cows we pay 12 rubles., and for the tithes under the bread need to work 3 acres of harvest. We live so are not allowed here, continued Kiyan. – We in the loop. What are we to do? We turned, man, everywhere… anywhere we are not accepted nowhere us no assistance”;  The situation began to develop and by 1905 mass demonstrations have already taken over half of the provinces of the country. Total for 1905 was was 3228 peasant uprisings. In the country spoke openly about the peasant war against the landlords.
“In some places the autumn of 1905 peasant community has appropriated all the power and even declared full disobedience to the state. The most striking example is the Markov Republic in the Volokolamsk district, Moscow province, existed from 31 Oct 1905 16 Jul 1906″